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McCann: History of Mother Seton's Daughters 41 1 

west, the result of her labors has been the accumulation of a mass of 
valuable information. 

But at many points the book fails to relate the facts which it presents 
to the currents of economic and political development in the United 
States. This is true in general as to the years after 1820, and in par- 
ticular as to the decade 1850-1860. Strangely enough the West, which 
in the earlier chapters overshadows the East, in the latter part of the 
book is inadequately treated. The relation to transportation of the 
public lands (except in the case of the Illinois Central), the surplus 
revenue, the panic of 1837, the distribution of 1841, the proposed as- 
sumption of state debts, and the question of repudiation; Calhoun's effort 
to win the West in 1845 5 transportation as affected by the annexation of 
Texas and by the acquisition of territory from Mexico ; the influence of 
the Santa Fe and the Oregon trails; the importance of the railroads 
of the old Northwest in their bearing on the election of i860 — for light 
on these topics the student must look elsewhere. The movement for a 
railroad to the Pacific, when the volume draws to a close, is still a 
" dream " : though a chapter is taken from Haney on routes across the 

The volume is well indexed. There are five excellent maps, for 
which acknowledgment is made to the Department of Historical Re- 
search of the Carnegie Institution. The bibliography covers forty 
pages, but many titles are missing that one would expect to find. As a 
single example may be cited the Catalogue of Books on Railway Eco- 
nomics published in 1912 by the University of Chicago Press for the 
Bureau of Railway Economics. 

St. George L. Sioussat. 

The History of Mother Seton's Daughters: the Sisters of Charity 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1809-1917. By Sister Mary Agnes Mc- 
Cann, M.A. In two volumes. (New York: Longmans, Green, 
and Company. 1917. Pp. xxvii, 336; vii, 334. $5.00.) 

What strikes the reader of these volumes is the almost meticulous 
attention of the writer to historical exactitude. That she approached 
her task well prepared a mere glance at the comprehensive bibliography 
given in the first volume assures the reader, while historical sources — 
private journals, letters of prominent churchmen, community records, 
long-forgotten newspapers and periodicals — are quoted with a familiar- 
ity which comes of deep research. In fact the work is, rather than an 
historical narrative, a concatenation of reproduced historical sources, 
many of which are here published for the first time. . This type of his- 
torical study has long been a desideratum among students of American 
church history. The subject, though not entirely new to readers familiar 
with the estimable works of De Barbary, McSweeny, Sadlier, Seton, and 
White, is here treated with a comprehensiveness and authentication of 

412 Reviews of Books 

facts that makes this the authoritative history of the American Daugh- 
ters of Charity. 

The work may be divided into two parts, which correspond to the 
two distinct periods of the history: Mother Seton's Daughters of Em- 
mitsburg (1808-1851); and Mother Seton's Daughters of Cincinnati 
( 1851-1870) . Each period is the creation of a remarkable woman : Mother 
Seton and Mother Margret George respectively. Elizabeth Bayley Seton 
is without doubt the greatest Catholic and one of the few really great 
women of United States history. At a time when American institu- 
tions were in the moulding she labored through poverty and hardships 
against formidable opposition to impress the name of God deep on the 
heart of her people. The Revolution was a fait accompli; constitutional 
guarantees of political, economic, and religious freedom had opened our 
ports to European immigrants; the Catholic population, already consid- 
erable, was rapidly increasing; Baltimore was an archbishopric, New- 
York and Boston bishoprics; colleges under Catholic auspices had been 
opened at Baltimore, Georgetown, and Emmitsburg; missionaries were 
following the settlers out into the great Middle West and South; Cath- 
olicity, which had come to the New World with the Santa Maria, was 
being gradually diffused throughout the length and breadth of the repub- 
lic. The need of the moment was an organized, well-trained corps of 
religious female teachers for the conduct of elementary schools, par- 
ticularly free schools for poor and dependent children. Isolated at- 
tempts to establish such schools had only served to emphasize this need. 
That many noble women there were, capable and ready for this work, 
those familiar with conditions realized, but the apparently insoluble diffi- 
culty was to find a leader competent to organize and direct such an insti- 
tution. Broad vision, an intrepid spirit, deep Christian charity, and a 
keen sense of the practical would be required of this American Madame 
LaGras. An accidental meeting which occurred some time in 1806 be- 
tween the Reverend Mr. Dubourg, a man of rare prudence and deep 
knowledge of human nature, and Elizabeth Bayley Seton, a young 
widow already burdened with the care of five children and a convert 
of only a few months to the Catholic Church, discovered both the leader 
and her director. The sequence of this meeting, the establishment of 
the American Daughters of Charity and of Catholic elementary schools 
in the United States, is the subject of this interesting history. Of un- 
usual interest is the writer's account of the affiliation of the Emmitsburg 
mother-house with the French Sisters of Charity and the consequent 
establishment of the Cincinnati mother-house. Conclusive evidence is 
introduced to show that this act was not only beyond but positively con- 
trary to the wishes of Mother Seton. Had it not been for the coura- 
geous resistance of Mother Margret George and her companions, 
Father Deluol's act of 1851 would have closed the history of the Amer- 
ican Daughters of Charity. Emmitsburg passed into the hands of a for- 
eign community, but on the banks of the Ohio Mother Seton's institute 
continued its work of benefaction. 

Arnold: Life of T.J. Jackson 413 

The writer must have given much time and labor to the study of her 
subject, but unfortunately the arrangement and composition of her vol- 
umes show signs of haste. The divisions are not distinctly marked; the 
chronological order of events is frequently confused; and the style is at 
times wanting in that precision and objectivity which should character- 
ize historical writings. The omission of many of the long newspaper 
quotations and school programmes which abound throughout the second 
volume would have contributed to the interest without destroying the 
completeness of the narrative. And though the reader finds the narra- 
tion of many events extraneous to this work interesting, he cannot but 
wish that Sister Agnes had saved them for another volume which we 
hope some day she will publish, the History of Catholicity in the Middle 

Early Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson, "Stone- 
wall Jackson". By his Nephew, Thomas Jackson Arnold. 
(New York: Fleming H. Revell Company. 191 6. Pp. 379. 

Thomas Jackson Arnold, author or editor of this book on General 
Jackson, is the nephew of the great Confederate commander. He was 
a favorite with the family at Lexington and even when Professor Jack- 
son became one of the heroes of the war, personal relations were inti- 
mate. The letters that now find a place in our voluminous war literature 
were written to the author's mother, a devoted sister of Jackson, or to 
the editor himself. Other letters of value there are but few. These evi- 
dences of Jackson's growth and inner life are both enlightening and 
characteristic, although it must be said that they do not materially 
qualify the picture we have in Dabney's Life and Campaigns or Hender- 
son's remarkable portrait of more recent years. 

An opinion of Mexico written from the battle-field in 1847 shows a 
little of the feeling that persists to-day: 

As I believe that this country is destined to be reformed by ours, I 
think that probably I shall spend many years here and may possibly con- 
clude (though I have not yet) to make my life more natural by sharing 
it with some amiable Seftorita. . . . This country offers more induce- 
ments for me than the United States, inasmuch as there is more room 
for improvement in everything that is good and commendable. The 
term corruption expresses the state of this unfortunate people better 
than any other in the English language (p. 129). 

It was a gay and " unregenerate " West Pointer that wrote of re- 
forming Mexico and of taking unto himself a wife in a strange land. A 
more serious tone is struck a few years later in a letter to the same 
sister : 

The passage of Scripture from which I have derived sufficient sup- 
port, whenever applied, is in the following words, "Acknowledge God 
in all thy ways, and He shall direct thy paths". What a comfort is